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  19 minute read  


The gardener-controller-manager (often referred to as “GCM”) is a component that runs next to the Gardener API server, similar to the Kubernetes Controller Manager. It runs several controllers that do not require talking to any seed or shoot cluster. Also, as of today, it exposes an HTTP server that is serving several health check endpoints and metrics.

This document explains the various functionalities of the gardener-controller-manager and their purpose.


Bastion Controller

Bastion resources have a limited lifetime which can be extended up to a certain amount by performing a heartbeat on them. The Bastion controller is responsible for deleting expired or rotten Bastions.

  • “expired” means a Bastion has exceeded its status.expirationTimestamp.
  • “rotten” means a Bastion is older than the configured maxLifetime.

The maxLifetime defaults to 24 hours and is an option in the BastionControllerConfiguration which is part of gardener-controller-managers ControllerManagerControllerConfiguration, see the example config file for details.

The controller also deletes Bastions in case the referenced Shoot:

  • no longer exists
  • is marked for deletion (i.e., have a non-nil .metadata.deletionTimestamp)
  • was migrated to another seed (i.e., Shoot.spec.seedName is different than Bastion.spec.seedName).

The deletion of Bastions triggers the gardenlet to perform the necessary cleanups in the Seed cluster, so some time can pass between deletion and the Bastion actually disappearing. Clients like gardenctl are advised to not re-use Bastions whose deletion timestamp has been set already.

Refer to GEP-15 for more information on the lifecycle of Bastion resources.

CertificateSigningRequest Controller

After the gardenlet gets deployed on the Seed cluster, it needs to establish itself as a trusted party to communicate with the Gardener API server. It runs through a bootstrap flow similar to the kubelet bootstrap process.

On startup, the gardenlet uses a kubeconfig with a bootstrap token which authenticates it as being part of the system:bootstrappers group. This kubeconfig is used to create a CertificateSigningRequest (CSR) against the Gardener API server.

The controller in gardener-controller-manager checks whether the CertificateSigningRequest has the expected organization, common name and usages which the gardenlet would request.

It only auto-approves the CSR if the client making the request is allowed to “create” the certificatesigningrequests/seedclient subresource. Clients with the system:bootstrappers group are bound to the gardener.cloud:system:seed-bootstrapper ClusterRole, hence, they have such privileges. As the bootstrap kubeconfig for the gardenlet contains a bootstrap token which is authenticated as being part of the systems:bootstrappers group, its created CSR gets auto-approved.

CloudProfile Controller

CloudProfiles are essential when it comes to reconciling Shoots since they contain constraints (like valid machine types, Kubernetes versions, or machine images) and sometimes also some global configuration for the respective environment (typically via provider-specific configuration in .spec.providerConfig).

Consequently, to ensure that CloudProfiles in-use are always present in the system until the last referring Shoot gets deleted, the controller adds a finalizer which is only released when there is no Shoot referencing the CloudProfile anymore.

ControllerDeployment Controller

Extensions are registered in the garden cluster via ControllerRegistration and deployment of respective extensions are specified via ControllerDeployment. For more info refer to Registering Extension Controllers.

This controller ensures that ControllerDeployment in-use always exists until the last ControllerRegistration referencing them gets deleted. The controller adds a finalizer which is only released when there is no ControllerRegistration referencing the ControllerDeployment anymore.

ControllerRegistration Controller

The ControllerRegistration controller makes sure that the required Gardener Extensions specified by the ControllerRegistration resources are present in the seed clusters. It also takes care of the creation and deletion of ControllerInstallation objects for a given seed cluster. The controller has three reconciliation loops.

“Main” Reconciler

This reconciliation loop watches the Seed objects and determines which ControllerRegistrations are required for them and reconciles the corresponding ControllerInstallation resources to reach the determined state. To begin with, it computes the kind/type combinations of extensions required for the seed. For this, the controller examines a live list of ControllerRegistrations, ControllerInstallations, BackupBuckets, BackupEntrys, Shoots, and Secrets from the garden cluster. For example, it examines the shoots running on the seed and deducts the kind/type, like Infrastructure/gcp. The seed (seed.spec.provider.type) and DNS (seed.spec.dns.provider.type) provider types are considered when calculating the list of required ControllerRegistrations, as well. It also decides whether they should always be deployed based on the .spec.deployment.policy. For the configuration options, please see this section.

Based on these required combinations, each of them are mapped to ControllerRegistration objects and then to their corresponding ControllerInstallation objects (if existing). The controller then creates or updates the required ControllerInstallation objects for the given seed. It also deletes every existing ControllerInstallation whose referenced ControllerRegistration is not part of the required list. For example, if the shoots in the seed are no longer using the DNS provider aws-route53, then the controller proceeds to delete the respective ControllerInstallation object.

"ControllerRegistration Finalizer" Reconciler

This reconciliation loop watches the ControllerRegistration resource and adds finalizers to it when they are created. In case a deletion request comes in for the resource, i.e., if a .metadata.deletionTimestamp is set, it actively scans for a ControllerInstallation resource using this ControllerRegistration, and decides whether the deletion can be allowed. In case no related ControllerInstallation is present, it removes the finalizer and marks it for deletion.

"Seed Finalizer" Reconciler

This loop also watches the Seed object and adds finalizers to it at creation. If a .metadata.deletionTimestamp is set for the seed, then the controller checks for existing ControllerInstallation objects which reference this seed. If no such objects exist, then it removes the finalizer and allows the deletion.

“Extension ClusterRole” Reconciler

This reconciler watches two resources in the garden cluster:

  • ClusterRoles labelled with authorization.gardener.cloud/custom-extensions-permissions=true
  • ServiceAccounts in seed namespaces matching the selector provided via the authorization.gardener.cloud/extensions-serviceaccount-selector annotation of such ClusterRoles.

Its core task is to maintain a ClusterRoleBinding resource referencing the respective ClusterRole. This gets bound to all ServiceAccounts in seed namespaces whose labels match the selector provided via the authorization.gardener.cloud/extensions-serviceaccount-selector annotation of such ClusterRoles.

You can read more about the purpose of this reconciler in this document.

Event Controller

With the Gardener Event Controller, you can prolong the lifespan of events related to Shoot clusters. This is an optional controller which will become active once you provide the below mentioned configuration.

All events in K8s are deleted after a configurable time-to-live (controlled via a kube-apiserver argument called --event-ttl (defaulting to 1 hour)). The need to prolong the time-to-live for Shoot cluster events frequently arises when debugging customer issues on live systems. This controller leaves events involving Shoots untouched, while deleting all other events after a configured time. In order to activate it, provide the following configuration:

  • concurrentSyncs: The amount of goroutines scheduled for reconciling events.
  • ttlNonShootEvents: When an event reaches this time-to-live it gets deleted unless it is a Shoot-related event (defaults to 1h, equivalent to the event-ttl default).

⚠️ In addition, you should also configure the --event-ttl for the kube-apiserver to define an upper-limit of how long Shoot-related events should be stored. The --event-ttl should be larger than the ttlNonShootEvents or this controller will have no effect.

ExposureClass Controller

ExposureClass abstracts the ability to expose a Shoot clusters control plane in certain network environments (e.g. corporate networks, DMZ, internet) on all Seeds or a subset of the Seeds. For more information, see ExposureClasses.

Consequently, to ensure that ExposureClasses in-use are always present in the system until the last referring Shoot gets deleted, the controller adds a finalizer which is only released when there is no Shoot referencing the ExposureClass anymore.

ManagedSeedSet Controller

ManagedSeedSet objects maintain a stable set of replicas of ManagedSeeds, i.e. they guarantee the availability of a specified number of identical ManagedSeeds on an equal number of identical Shoots. The ManagedSeedSet controller creates and deletes ManagedSeeds and Shoots in response to changes to the replicas and selector fields. For more information, refer to the ManagedSeedSet proposal document.

  1. The reconciler first gets all the replicas of the given ManagedSeedSet in the ManagedSeedSet’s namespace and with the matching selector. Each replica is a struct that contains a ManagedSeed, its corresponding Seed and Shoot objects.
  2. Then the pending replica is retrieved, if it exists.
  3. Next it determines the ready, postponed, and deletable replicas.
    • A replica is considered ready when a Seed owned by a ManagedSeed has been registered either directly or by deploying gardenlet into a Shoot, the Seed is Ready and the Shoot’s status is Healthy.
    • If a replica is not ready and it is not pending, i.e. it is not specified in the ManagedSeed’s status.pendingReplica field, then it is added to the postponed replicas.
    • A replica is deletable if it has no scheduled Shoots and the replica’s Shoot and ManagedSeed do not have the seedmanagement.gardener.cloud/protect-from-deletion annotation.
  4. Finally, it checks the actual and target replica counts. If the actual count is less than the target count, the controller scales up the replicas by creating new replicas to match the desired target count. If the actual count is more than the target, the controller deletes replicas to match the desired count. Before scale-out or scale-in, the controller first reconciles the pending replica (there can always only be one) and makes sure the replica is ready before moving on to the next one.
    • Scale-out(actual count < target count)
      • During the scale-out phase, the controller first creates the Shoot object from the ManagedSeedSet’s spec.shootTemplate field and adds the replica to the status.pendingReplica of the ManagedSeedSet.
      • For the subsequent reconciliation steps, the controller makes sure that the pending replica is ready before proceeding to the next replica. Once the Shoot is created successfully, the ManagedSeed object is created from the ManagedSeedSet’s spec.template. The ManagedSeed object is reconciled by the ManagedSeed controller and a Seed object is created for the replica. Once the replica’s Seed becomes ready and the Shoot becomes healthy, the replica also becomes ready.
    • Scale-in(actual count > target count)
      • During the scale-in phase, the controller first determines the replica that can be deleted. From the deletable replicas, it chooses the one with the lowest priority and deletes it. Priority is determined in the following order:
        • First, compare replica statuses. Replicas with “less advanced” status are considered lower priority. For example, a replica with StatusShootReconciling status has a lower value than a replica with StatusShootReconciled status. Hence, in this case, a replica with a StatusShootReconciling status will have lower priority and will be considered for deletion.
        • Then, the replicas are compared with the readiness of their Seeds. Replicas with non-ready Seeds are considered lower priority.
        • Then, the replicas are compared with the health statuses of their Shoots. Replicas with “worse” statuses are considered lower priority.
        • Finally, the replica ordinals are compared. Replicas with lower ordinals are considered lower priority.

Quota Controller

Quota object limits the resources consumed by shoot clusters either per provider secret or per project/namespace.

Consequently, to ensure that Quotas in-use are always present in the system until the last SecretBinding that references them gets deleted, the controller adds a finalizer which is only released when there is no SecretBinding referencing the Quota anymore.

Project Controller

There are multiple controllers responsible for different aspects of Project objects. Please also refer to the Project documentation.

“Main” Reconciler

This reconciler manages a dedicated Namespace for each Project. The namespace name can either be specified explicitly in .spec.namespace (must be prefixed with garden-) or it will be determined by the controller. If .spec.namespace is set, it tries to create it. If it already exists, it tries to adopt it. This will only succeed if the Namespace was previously labeled with gardener.cloud/role=project and project.gardener.cloud/name=<project-name>. This is to prevent end-users from being able to adopt arbitrary namespaces and escalate their privileges, e.g. the kube-system namespace.

After the namespace was created/adopted, the controller creates several ClusterRoles and ClusterRoleBindings that allow the project members to access related resources based on their roles. These RBAC resources are prefixed with gardener.cloud:system:project{-member,-viewer}:<project-name>. Gardener administrators and extension developers can define their own roles. For more information, see Extending Project Roles for more information.

In addition, operators can configure the Project controller to maintain a default ResourceQuota for project namespaces. Quotas can especially limit the creation of user facing resources, e.g. Shoots, SecretBindings, Secrets and thus protect the garden cluster from massive resource exhaustion but also enable operators to align quotas with respective enterprise policies.

⚠️ Gardener itself is not exempted from configured quotas. For example, Gardener creates Secrets for every shoot cluster in the project namespace and at the same time increases the available quota count. Please mind this additional resource consumption.

The controller configuration provides a template section controllers.project.quotas where such a ResourceQuota (see the example below) can be deposited.

    - config:
        apiVersion: v1
        kind: ResourceQuota
            count/shoots.core.gardener.cloud: "100"
            count/secretbindings.core.gardener.cloud: "10"
            count/secrets: "800"
      projectSelector: {}

The Project controller takes the specified config and creates a ResourceQuota with the name gardener in the project namespace. If a ResourceQuota resource with the name gardener already exists, the controller will only update fields in spec.hard which are unavailable at that time. This is done to configure a default Quota in all projects but to allow manual quota increases as the projects’ demands increase. spec.hard fields in the ResourceQuota object that are not present in the configuration are removed from the object. Labels and annotations on the ResourceQuota config get merged with the respective fields on existing ResourceQuotas. An optional projectSelector narrows down the amount of projects that are equipped with the given config. If multiple configs match for a project, then only the first match in the list is applied to the project namespace.

The .status.phase of the Project resources is set to Ready or Failed by the reconciler to indicate whether the reconciliation loop was performed successfully. Also, it generates Events to provide further information about its operations.

When a Project is marked for deletion, the controller ensures that there are no Shoots left in the project namespace. Once all Shoots are gone, the Namespace and Project are released.

“Stale Projects” Reconciler

As Gardener is a large-scale Kubernetes as a Service, it is designed for being used by a large amount of end-users. Over time, it is likely to happen that some of the hundreds or thousands of Project resources are no longer actively used.

Gardener offers the “stale projects” reconciler which will take care of identifying such stale projects, marking them with a “warning”, and eventually deleting them after a certain time period. This reconciler is enabled by default and works as follows:

  1. Projects are considered as “stale”/not actively used when all of the following conditions apply: The namespace associated with the Project does not have any…
    1. Shoot resources.
    2. BackupEntry resources.
    3. Secret resources that are referenced by a SecretBinding that is in use by a Shoot (not necessarily in the same namespace).
    4. Quota resources that are referenced by a SecretBinding that is in use by a Shoot (not necessarily in the same namespace).
    5. The time period when the project was used for the last time (status.lastActivityTimestamp) is longer than the configured minimumLifetimeDays

If a project is considered “stale”, then its .status.staleSinceTimestamp will be set to the time when it was first detected to be stale. If it gets actively used again, this timestamp will be removed. After some time, the .status.staleAutoDeleteTimestamp will be set to a timestamp after which Gardener will auto-delete the Project resource if it still is not actively used.

The component configuration of the gardener-controller-manager offers to configure the following options:

  • minimumLifetimeDays: Don’t consider newly created Projects as “stale” too early to give people/end-users some time to onboard and get familiar with the system. The “stale project” reconciler won’t set any timestamp for Projects younger than minimumLifetimeDays. When you change this value, then projects marked as “stale” may be no longer marked as “stale” in case they are young enough, or vice versa.
  • staleGracePeriodDays: Don’t compute auto-delete timestamps for stale Projects that are unused for less than staleGracePeriodDays. This is to not unnecessarily make people/end-users nervous “just because” they haven’t actively used their Project for a given amount of time. When you change this value, then already assigned auto-delete timestamps may be removed if the new grace period is not yet exceeded.
  • staleExpirationTimeDays: Expiration time after which stale Projects are finally auto-deleted (after .status.staleSinceTimestamp). If this value is changed and an auto-delete timestamp got already assigned to the projects, then the new value will only take effect if it’s increased. Hence, decreasing the staleExpirationTimeDays will not decrease already assigned auto-delete timestamps.

Gardener administrators/operators can exclude specific Projects from the stale check by annotating the related Namespace resource with project.gardener.cloud/skip-stale-check=true.

“Activity” Reconciler

Since the other two reconcilers are unable to actively monitor the relevant objects that are used in a Project (Shoot, Secret, etc.), there could be a situation where the user creates and deletes objects in a short period of time. In that case, the Stale Project Reconciler could not see that there was any activity on that project and it will still mark it as a Stale, even though it is actively used.

The Project Activity Reconciler is implemented to take care of such cases. An event handler will notify the reconciler for any activity and then it will update the status.lastActivityTimestamp. This update will also trigger the Stale Project Reconciler.

SecretBinding Controller

SecretBindings reference Secrets and Quotas and are themselves referenced by Shoots. The controller adds finalizers to the referenced objects to ensure they don’t get deleted while still being referenced. Similarly, to ensure that SecretBindings in-use are always present in the system until the last referring Shoot gets deleted, the controller adds a finalizer which is only released when there is no Shoot referencing the SecretBinding anymore.

Referenced Secrets will also be labeled with provider.shoot.gardener.cloud/<type>=true, where <type> is the value of the .provider.type of the SecretBinding. Also, all referenced Secrets, as well as Quotas, will be labeled with reference.gardener.cloud/secretbinding=true to allow for easily filtering for objects referenced by SecretBindings.

Seed Controller

The Seed controller in the gardener-controller-manager reconciles Seed objects with the help of the following reconcilers.

“Main” Reconciler

This reconciliation loop takes care of seed related operations in the garden cluster. When a new Seed object is created, the reconciler creates a new Namespace in the garden cluster seed-<seed-name>. Namespaces dedicated to single seed clusters allow us to segregate access permissions i.e., a gardenlet must not have permissions to access objects in all Namespaces in the garden cluster. There are objects in a Garden environment which are created once by the operator e.g., default domain secret, alerting credentials, and are required for operations happening in the gardenlet. Therefore, we not only need a seed specific Namespace but also a copy of these “shared” objects.

The “main” reconciler takes care about this replication:

KindNamespaceLabel Selector

“Backup Buckets Check” Reconciler

Every time a BackupBucket object is created or updated, the referenced Seed object is enqueued for reconciliation. It’s the reconciler’s task to check the status subresource of all existing BackupBuckets that reference this Seed. If at least one BackupBucket has .status.lastError != nil, the BackupBucketsReady condition on the Seed will be set to False, and consequently the Seed is considered as NotReady. If the SeedBackupBucketsCheckControllerConfiguration (which is part of gardener-controller-managers component configuration) contains a conditionThreshold for the BackupBucketsReady, the condition will instead first be set to Progressing and eventually to False once the conditionThreshold expires. See the example config file for details. Once the BackupBucket is healthy again, the seed will be re-queued and the condition will turn true.

“Extensions Check” Reconciler

This reconciler reconciles Seed objects and checks whether all ControllerInstallations referencing them are in a healthy state. Concretely, all three conditions Valid, Installed, and Healthy must have status True and the Progressing condition must have status False. Based on this check, it maintains the ExtensionsReady condition in the respective Seed’s .status.conditions list.

“Lifecycle” Reconciler

The “Lifecycle” reconciler processes Seed objects which are enqueued every 10 seconds in order to check if the responsible gardenlet is still responding and operable. Therefore, it checks renewals via Lease objects of the seed in the garden cluster which are renewed regularly by the gardenlet.

In case a Lease is not renewed for the configured amount in config.controllers.seed.monitorPeriod.duration:

  1. The reconciler assumes that the gardenlet stopped operating and updates the GardenletReady condition to Unknown.
  2. Additionally, the conditions and constraints of all Shoot resources scheduled on the affected seed are set to Unknown as well, because a striking gardenlet won’t be able to maintain these conditions any more.
  3. If the gardenlet’s client certificate has expired (identified based on the .status.clientCertificateExpirationTimestamp field in the Seed resource) and if it is managed by a ManagedSeed, then this will be triggered for a reconciliation. This will trigger the bootstrapping process again and allows gardenlets to obtain a fresh client certificate.

Shoot Controller

“Conditions” Reconciler

In case the reconciled Shoot is registered via a ManagedSeed as a seed cluster, this reconciler merges the conditions in the respective Seed’s .status.conditions into the .status.conditions of the Shoot. This is to provide a holistic view on the status of the registered seed cluster by just looking at the Shoot resource.

“Hibernation” Reconciler

This reconciler is responsible for hibernating or awakening shoot clusters based on the schedules defined in their .spec.hibernation.schedules. It ignores failed Shoots and those marked for deletion.

“Maintenance” Reconciler

This reconciler is responsible for maintaining shoot clusters based on the time window defined in their .spec.maintenance.timeWindow. It might auto-update the Kubernetes version or the operating system versions specified in the worker pools (.spec.provider.workers). It could also add some operation or task annotations. For more information, see Shoot Maintenance.

“Quota” Reconciler

This reconciler might auto-delete shoot clusters in case their referenced SecretBinding is itself referencing a Quota with .spec.clusterLifetimeDays != nil. If the shoot cluster is older than the configured lifetime, then it gets deleted. It maintains the expiration time of the Shoot in the value of the shoot.gardener.cloud/expiration-timestamp annotation. This annotation might be overridden, however only by at most twice the value of the .spec.clusterLifetimeDays.

“Reference” Reconciler

Shoot objects may specify references to other objects in the garden cluster which are required for certain features. For example, users can configure various DNS providers via .spec.dns.providers and usually need to refer to a corresponding Secret with valid DNS provider credentials inside. Such objects need a special protection against deletion requests as long as they are still being referenced by one or multiple shoots.

Therefore, this reconciler checks Shoots for referenced objects and adds the finalizer gardener.cloud/reference-protection to their .metadata.finalizers list. The reconciled Shoot also gets this finalizer to enable a proper garbage collection in case the gardener-controller-manager is offline at the moment of an incoming deletion request. When an object is not actively referenced anymore because the Shoot specification has changed or all related shoots were deleted (are in deletion), the controller will remove the added finalizer again so that the object can safely be deleted or garbage collected.

This reconciler inspects the following references:

  • DNS provider secrets (.spec.dns.provider)
  • Audit policy configmaps (.spec.kubernetes.kubeAPIServer.auditConfig.auditPolicy.configMapRef)

Further checks might be added in the future.

“Retry” Reconciler

This reconciler is responsible for retrying certain failed Shoots. Currently, the reconciler retries only failed Shoots with an error code ERR_INFRA_RATE_LIMITS_EXCEEDED. See Shoot Status for more details.

“Status Label” Reconciler

This reconciler is responsible for maintaining the shoot.gardener.cloud/status label on Shoots. See Shoot Status for more details.