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Deploying Gardener Locally

This document will walk you through deploying Gardener on your local machine. If you encounter difficulties, please open an issue so that we can make this process easier.


Gardener runs in any Kubernetes cluster. In this guide, we will start a KinD cluster which is used as both garden and seed cluster (please refer to the architecture overview) for simplicity.

Based on Skaffold, the container images for all required components will be built and deployed into the cluster (via their Helm charts).

Architecture Diagram


When deploying Gardener on your local machine you might face several limitations:

  • Your machine doesn’t have enough compute resources (see prerequisites) for hosting a second seed cluster or multiple shoot clusters.
  • Testing Gardener’s IPv6 features requires a Linux machine and native IPv6 connectivity to the internet, but you’re on macOS or don’t have IPv6 connectivity in your office environment or via your home ISP.

In these cases, you might want to check out one of the following options that run the setup described in this guide elsewhere for circumventing these limitations:


  • Make sure that you have followed the Local Setup guide up until the Get the sources step.
  • Make sure your Docker daemon is up-to-date, up and running and has enough resources (at least 8 CPUs and 8Gi memory; see here how to configure the resources for Docker for Mac).

    Please note that 8 CPU / 8Gi memory might not be enough for more than two Shoot clusters, i.e., you might need to increase these values if you want to run additional Shoots. If you plan on following the optional steps to create a second seed cluster, the required resources will be more - at least 10 CPUs and 18Gi memory. Additionally, please configure at least 120Gi of disk size for the Docker daemon. Tip: You can clean up unused data with docker system df and docker system prune -a.

  • Make sure the kind docker network is using the CIDR
    • If the network does not exist, it can be created with docker network create kind --subnet
    • If the network already exists, the CIDR can be checked with docker network inspect kind | jq '.[].IPAM.Config[].Subnet'. If it is not, delete the network with docker network rm kind and create it with the command above.

Setting Up the KinD Cluster (Garden and Seed)

make kind-up

If you want to setup an IPv6 KinD cluster, use make kind-up IPFAMILY=ipv6 instead.

This command sets up a new KinD cluster named gardener-local and stores the kubeconfig in the ./example/gardener-local/kind/local/kubeconfig file.

It might be helpful to copy this file to $HOME/.kube/config, since you will need to target this KinD cluster multiple times. Alternatively, make sure to set your KUBECONFIG environment variable to ./example/gardener-local/kind/local/kubeconfig for all future steps via export KUBECONFIG=example/gardener-local/kind/local/kubeconfig.

All of the following steps assume that you are using this kubeconfig.

Additionally, this command also deploys a local container registry to the cluster, as well as a few registry mirrors, that are set up as a pull-through cache for all upstream registries Gardener uses by default. This is done to speed up image pulls across local clusters. The local registry can be accessed as localhost:5001 for pushing and pulling. The storage directories of the registries are mounted to the host machine under dev/local-registry. With this, mirrored images don’t have to be pulled again after recreating the cluster.

The command also deploys a default calico installation as the cluster’s CNI implementation with NetworkPolicy support (the default kindnet CNI doesn’t provide NetworkPolicy support). Furthermore, it deploys the metrics-server in order to support HPA and VPA on the seed cluster.

Outgoing IPv6 Single-Stack Networking (optional)

If you want to test IPv6-related features, we need to configure NAT for outgoing traffic from the kind network to the internet. After make kind-up IPFAMILY=ipv6, check the network created by kind:

$ docker network inspect kind | jq '.[].IPAM.Config[].Subnet'

Determine which device is used for outgoing internet traffic by looking at the default route:

$ ip route show default
default via dev enp3s0 proto dhcp src metric 100

Configure NAT for traffic from the kind cluster to the internet using the IPv6 range and the network device from the previous two steps:

ip6tables -t nat -A POSTROUTING -o enp3s0 -s fc00:f853:ccd:e793::/64 -j MASQUERADE

Setting Up Gardener

make gardener-up

This will first build the base image (which might take a bit if you do it for the first time). Afterwards, the Gardener resources will be deployed into the cluster.

Developing Gardener

make gardener-dev

This is similar to make gardener-up but additionally starts a skaffold dev loop. After the initial deployment, skaffold starts watching source files. Once it has detected changes, press any key to trigger a new build and deployment of the changed components.

Tip: you can set the SKAFFOLD_MODULE environment variable to select specific modules of the skaffold configuration (see skaffold.yaml) that skaffold should watch, build, and deploy. This significantly reduces turnaround times during development.

For example, if you want to develop changes to gardenlet:

# initial deployment of all components
make gardener-up
# start iterating on gardenlet without deploying other components
make gardener-dev SKAFFOLD_MODULE=gardenlet

Creating a Shoot Cluster

You can wait for the Seed to be ready by running:

./hack/usage/wait-for.sh seed local GardenletReady Bootstrapped SeedSystemComponentsHealthy ExtensionsReady

Alternatively, you can run kubectl get seed local and wait for the STATUS to indicate readiness:

local   Ready    local      local    4m42s   vX.Y.Z-dev    v1.21.1

In order to create a first shoot cluster, just run:

kubectl apply -f example/provider-local/shoot.yaml

You can wait for the Shoot to be ready by running:

NAMESPACE=garden-local ./hack/usage/wait-for.sh shoot APIServerAvailable ControlPlaneHealthy ObservabilityComponentsHealthy EveryNodeReady SystemComponentsHealthy

Alternatively, you can run kubectl -n garden-local get shoot local and wait for the LAST OPERATION to reach 100%:

local   local          local      local    1.21.0        Awake         Create Processing (43%)   healthy   94s

(Optional): You could also execute a simple e2e test (creating and deleting a shoot) by running:

make test-e2e-local-simple KUBECONFIG="$PWD/example/gardener-local/kind/local/kubeconfig"

Accessing the Shoot Cluster

⚠️ Please note that in this setup, shoot clusters are not accessible by default when you download the kubeconfig and try to communicate with them. The reason is that your host most probably cannot resolve the DNS names of the clusters since provider-local extension runs inside the KinD cluster (for more details, see DNSRecord). Hence, if you want to access the shoot cluster, you have to run the following command which will extend your /etc/hosts file with the required information to make the DNS names resolvable:

cat <<EOF | sudo tee -a /etc/hosts

# Manually created to access local Gardener shoot clusters.
# TODO: Remove this again when the shoot cluster access is no longer required. api.local.local.external.local.gardener.cloud api.local.local.internal.local.gardener.cloud api.e2e-managedseed.garden.external.local.gardener.cloud api.e2e-managedseed.garden.internal.local.gardener.cloud api.e2e-hibernated.local.external.local.gardener.cloud api.e2e-hibernated.local.internal.local.gardener.cloud api.e2e-unpriv.local.external.local.gardener.cloud api.e2e-unpriv.local.internal.local.gardener.cloud api.e2e-wake-up.local.external.local.gardener.cloud api.e2e-wake-up.local.internal.local.gardener.cloud api.e2e-migrate.local.external.local.gardener.cloud api.e2e-migrate.local.internal.local.gardener.cloud api.e2e-rotate.local.external.local.gardener.cloud api.e2e-rotate.local.internal.local.gardener.cloud api.e2e-default.local.external.local.gardener.cloud api.e2e-default.local.internal.local.gardener.cloud api.e2e-update-node.local.external.local.gardener.cloud api.e2e-update-node.local.internal.local.gardener.cloud api.e2e-update-zone.local.external.local.gardener.cloud api.e2e-update-zone.local.internal.local.gardener.cloud api.e2e-upgrade.local.external.local.gardener.cloud api.e2e-upgrade.local.internal.local.gardener.cloud

To access the Shoot, you can acquire a kubeconfig by using the shoots/adminkubeconfig subresource.

(Optional): Setting Up a Second Seed Cluster

There are cases where you would want to create a second seed cluster in your local setup. For example, if you want to test the control plane migration feature. The following steps describe how to do that.

If you are on macOS, add a new IP address on your loopback device which will be necessary for the new KinD cluster that you will create. On macOS, the default loopback device is lo0.

sudo ip addr add dev lo0                                     # adding ip to the loopback interface

Next, setup the second KinD cluster:

make kind2-up

This command sets up a new KinD cluster named gardener-local2 and stores its kubeconfig in the ./example/gardener-local/kind/local2/kubeconfig file.

In order to deploy required resources in the KinD cluster that you just created, run:

make gardenlet-kind2-up

The following steps assume that you are using the kubeconfig that points to the gardener-local cluster (first KinD cluster): export KUBECONFIG=example/gardener-local/kind/local/kubeconfig.

You can wait for the local2 Seed to be ready by running:

./hack/usage/wait-for.sh seed local2 GardenletReady Bootstrapped ExtensionsReady

Alternatively, you can run kubectl get seed local2 and wait for the STATUS to indicate readiness:

local2  Ready    local      local    4m42s   vX.Y.Z-dev    v1.21.1

If you want to perform control plane migration, you can follow the steps outlined in Control Plane Migration to migrate the shoot cluster to the second seed you just created.

Deleting the Shoot Cluster

./hack/usage/delete shoot local garden-local

(Optional): Tear Down the Second Seed Cluster

make kind2-down

Tear Down the Gardener Environment

make kind-down

Remote Local Setup

Just like Prow is executing the KinD based integration tests in a K8s pod, it is possible to interactively run this KinD based Gardener development environment, aka “local setup”, in a “remote” K8s pod.

k apply -f docs/deployment/content/remote-local-setup.yaml
k exec -it deployment/remote-local-setup -- sh

tmux -u a


Please refer to the TMUX documentation for working effectively inside the remote-local-setup pod.

To access Grafana, Prometheus or other components in a browser, two port forwards are needed:

The port forward from the laptop to the pod:

k port-forward deployment/remote-local-setup 3000

The port forward in the remote-local-setup pod to the respective component:

k port-forward -n shoot--local--local deployment/grafana 3000