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Deploying Gardener Locally and Enabling Provider-Extensions

This document will walk you through deploying Gardener on your local machine and bootstrapping your own seed clusters on an existing Kubernetes cluster. It is supposed to run your local Gardener developments on a real infrastructure. For running Gardener only entirely local, please check the getting started locally documentation. If you encounter difficulties, please open an issue so that we can make this process easier.

Overview

Gardener runs in any Kubernetes cluster. In this guide, we will start a KinD cluster which is used as garden cluster. Any Kubernetes cluster could be used as seed clusters in order to support provider extensions (please refer to the architecture overview). This guide is tested for using Kubernetes clusters provided by Gardener, AWS, Azure, and GCP as seed so far.

Based on Skaffold, the container images for all required components will be built and deployed into the clusters (via their Helm charts).

Architecture Diagram

Prerequisites

  • Make sure that you have prepared your setup and checked out Gardener sources as described in the Local Setup guide.
  • Make sure your Docker daemon is up-to-date, up and running and has enough resources (at least 8 CPUs and 8Gi memory; see the Docker documentation for how to configure the resources for Docker for Mac).

    Additionally, please configure at least 120Gi of disk size for the Docker daemon. Tip: You can clean up unused data with docker system df and docker system prune -a.

  • Make sure that you have access to a Kubernetes cluster you can use as a seed cluster in this setup.
    • The seed cluster requires at least 16 CPUs in total to run one shoot cluster
    • You could use any Kubernetes cluster for your seed cluster. However, using a Gardener shoot cluster for your seed simplifies some configuration steps.
    • When bootstrapping gardenlet to the cluster, your new seed will have the same provider type as the shoot cluster you use - an AWS shoot will become an AWS seed, a GCP shoot will become a GCP seed, etc. (only relevant when using a Gardener shoot as seed).

Provide Infrastructure Credentials and Configuration

As this setup is running on a real infrastructure, you have to provide credentials for DNS, the infrastructure, and the kubeconfig for the Gardener cluster you want to use as seed.

There are .gitignore entries for all files and directories which include credentials. Nevertheless, please double check and make sure that credentials are not commited.

DNS

Gardener control plane requires DNS for default and internal domains. Thus, you have to configure a valid DNS provider for your setup.

Please maintain your DNS provider configuration and credentials at ./example/provider-extensions/garden/controlplane/values.yaml.

You can find a template for the file at ./example/provider-extensions/garden/controlplane/values.yaml.tmpl.

Infrastructure

Infrastructure secrets and the corresponding secret bindings should be maintained at:

  • ./example/provider-extensions/garden/project/credentials/infrastructure-secrets.yaml
  • ./example/provider-extensions/garden/project/credentials/secretbindings.yaml

There are templates with .tmpl suffixes for the files in the same folder.

Seed Cluster Preparation

The kubeconfig of your Kubernetes cluster you would like to use as seed should be placed at ./example/provider-extensions/seed/kubeconfig. Additionally, please maintain the configuration of your seed in ./example/provider-extensions/gardenlet/values.yaml. It is automatically copied from values.yaml.tmpl in the same directory when you run make gardener-extensions-up for the first time. It also includes explanations of the properties you should set.

Using a Gardener cluster as seed simplifies the process, because some configuration options can be taken from shoot-info and creating DNS entries and TLS certificates is automated.

However, you can use different Kubernetes clusters for your seed too and configure these things manually. Please configure the options of ./example/provider-extensions/gardenlet/values.yaml upfront. For configuring DNS and TLS certificates, make gardener-extensions-up, which is explained later, will pause and tell you what to do.

External Controllers

You might plan to deploy and register external controllers for networking, operating system, providers, etc. Please put ControllerDeployments and ControllerRegistrations into the S./example/provider-extensions/garden/controllerregistrations directory. The whole content of this folder will be applied to your KinD cluster.

CloudProfiles

There are no demo CloudProfiles yet. Thus, please copy CloudProfiles from another landscape to the ./example/provider-extensions/garden/cloudprofiles directory or create your own CloudProfiles based on the gardener examples. Please check the GitHub repository of your desired provider-extension. Most of them include example CloudProfiles. All files you place in this folder will be applied to your KinD cluster.

Setting Up the KinD Cluster

make kind-extensions-up

This command sets up a new KinD cluster named gardener-local and stores the kubeconfig in the ./example/gardener-local/kind/extensions/kubeconfig file.

It might be helpful to copy this file to $HOME/.kube/config, since you will need to target this KinD cluster multiple times. Alternatively, make sure to set your KUBECONFIG environment variable to ./example/gardener-local/kind/extensions/kubeconfig for all future steps via export KUBECONFIG=$PWD/example/gardener-local/kind/extensions/kubeconfig.

All of the following steps assume that you are using this kubeconfig.

Additionally, this command deploys a local container registry to the cluster as well as a few registry mirrors that are set up as a pull-through cache for all upstream registries Gardener uses by default. This is done to speed up image pulls across local clusters. The local registry can be accessed as localhost:5001 for pushing and pulling. The storage directories of the registries are mounted to your machine under dev/local-registry. With this, mirrored images don’t have to be pulled again after recreating the cluster.

The command also deploys a default calico installation as the cluster’s CNI implementation with NetworkPolicy support (the default kindnet CNI doesn’t provide NetworkPolicy support). Furthermore, it deploys the metrics-server in order to support HPA and VPA on the seed cluster.

Setting Up Gardener (Garden on KinD, Seed on Gardener Cluster)

make gardener-extensions-up

This will first prepare the basic configuration of your KinD and Gardener clusters. Afterwards, the images for the Garden cluster are built and deployed into the KinD cluster. Finally, the images for the Seed cluster are built, pushed to a container registry on the Seed, and the gardenlet is started.

Pause and Unpause the KinD Cluster

The KinD cluster can be paused by stopping and keeping its docker container. This can be done by running:

make kind-extensions-down

When you run make kind-extensions-up again, you will start the docker container with your previous Gardener configuration again.

This provides the option to switch off your local KinD cluster fast without leaving orphaned infrastructure elements behind.

Creating a Shoot Cluster

You can wait for the Seed to be ready by running:

kubectl wait --for=condition=gardenletready seed provider-extensions --timeout=5m

make kind-extensions-up already includes such a check. However, it might be useful when you wake up your Seed from hibernation or unpause you KinD cluster.

Alternatively, you can run kubectl get seed provider-extensions and wait for the STATUS to indicate readiness:

NAME                  STATUS   PROVIDER   REGION         AGE    VERSION      K8S VERSION
provider-extensions   Ready    gcp        europe-west1   111m   v1.61.0-dev   v1.24.7

In order to create a first shoot cluster, please create your own Shoot definition and apply it to your KinD cluster. gardener-scheduler includes candidateDeterminationStrategy: MinimalDistance configuration so you are able to run schedule Shoots of different providers on your Seed.

You can wait for your Shoots to be ready by running kubectl -n garden-local get shoots and wait for the LAST OPERATION to reach 100%. The output depends on your Shoot definition. This is an example output:

NAME        CLOUDPROFILE   PROVIDER   REGION         K8S VERSION   HIBERNATION   LAST OPERATION               STATUS    AGE
aws         aws            aws        eu-west-1      1.24.3        Awake         Create Processing (43%)      healthy   84s
aws-arm64   aws            aws        eu-west-1      1.24.3        Awake         Create Processing (43%)      healthy   65s
azure       az             azure      westeurope     1.24.2        Awake         Create Processing (43%)      healthy   57s
gcp         gcp            gcp        europe-west1   1.24.3        Awake         Create Processing (43%)      healthy   94s

Accessing the Shoot Cluster

Your shoot clusters will have a public DNS entries for their API servers, so that they could be reached via the Internet via kubectl after you have created their kubeconfig.

We encourage you to use the adminkubeconfig subresource for accessing your shoot cluster. You can find an example how to use it in Accessing Shoot Clusters.

Deleting the Shoot Clusters

Before tearing down your environment, you have to delete your shoot clusters. This is highly recommended because otherwise you would leave orphaned items on your infrastructure accounts.

./hack/usage/delete shoot <your-shoot> garden-local

Tear Down the Gardener Environment

Before you delete your local KinD cluster, you should shut down your Shoots and Seed in a clean way to avoid orphaned infrastructure elements in your projects.

Please ensure that your KinD and Seed clusters are online (not paused or hibernated) and run:

make gardener-extensions-down

This will delete all Shoots first (this could take a couple of minutes), then uninstall gardenlet from the Seed and the gardener components from the KinD. Finally, the additional components like container registry, etc., are deleted from both clusters.

When this is done, you can securely delete your local KinD cluster by running:

make kind-extensions-clean