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e2e Test Suite

Developers can run extended e2e tests, in addition to unit tests, for Etcd-Druid in or from their local environments. This is recommended to verify the desired behavior of several features and to avoid regressions in future releases.

The very same tests typically run as part of the component’s release job as well as on demand, e.g., when triggered by Etcd-Druid maintainers for open pull requests.

Testing Etcd-Druid automatically involves a certain test coverage for gardener/etcd-backup-restore which is deployed as a side-car to the actual etcd container.


The e2e test lifecycle is managed with the help of skaffold. Every involved step like setup, deploy, undeploy or cleanup is executed against a Kubernetes cluster which makes it a mandatory prerequisite at the same time. Only skaffold itself with involved docker, helm and kubectl executions as well as the e2e-tests are executed locally. Required binaries are automatically downloaded if you use the corresponding make target, as described in this document.

It’s expected that especially the deploy step is run against a Kubernetes cluster which doesn’t contain an Druid deployment or any left-overs like druid.gardener.cloud CRDs. The deploy step will likely fail in such scenarios.

Tip: Create a fresh KinD cluster or a similar one with a small footprint before executing the tests.


The following providers are supported for e2e tests:

  • AWS
  • Azure
  • GCP
  • Local

Valid credentials need to be provided when tests are executed with mentioned cloud providers.


An e2e test execution involves the following steps:

setupCreate a storage bucket which is used for etcd backups (only with cloud providers).
deployBuild Docker image, upload it to registry (if remote cluster - see Docker build), deploy Helm chart (charts/druid) to Kubernetes cluster.
testExecute e2e tests as defined in test/e2e.
undeployRemove the deployed artifacts from Kubernetes cluster.
cleanupDelete storage bucket and Druid deployment from test cluster.

Make target

Executing e2e-tests is as easy as executing the following command with defined Env-Vars as desribed in the following section and as needed for your test scenario.

make test-e2e

Common Env Variables

The following environment variables influence how the flow described above is executed:

  • PROVIDERS: Providers used for testing (all, aws, azure, gcp, local). Multiple entries must be comma separated.

    Note: Some tests will use very first entry from env PROVIDERS for e2e testing (ex: multi-node tests). So for multi-node tests to use specific provider, specify that provider as first entry in env PROVIDERS.

  • KUBECONFIG: Kubeconfig pointing to cluster where Etcd-Druid will be deployed (preferably KinD).
  • TEST_ID: Some ID which is used to create assets for and during testing.
  • STEPS: Steps executed by make target (setup, deploy, test, undeploy, cleanup - default: all steps).

AWS Env Variables

  • AWS_ACCESS_KEY_ID: Key ID of the user.
  • AWS_SECRET_ACCESS_KEY: Access key of the user.
  • AWS_REGION: Region in which the test bucket is created.


make \
  AWS_REGION="eu-central-1" \
  KUBECONFIG="$HOME/.kube/config" \
  PROVIDERS="aws" \
  TEST_ID="some-test-id" \
  STEPS="setup,deploy,test,undeploy,cleanup" \

Azure Env Variables

  • STORAGE_ACCOUNT: Storage account used for managing the storage container.
  • STORAGE_KEY: Key of storage account.


make \
  STORAGE_KEY="eHl6Cg==" \
  KUBECONFIG="$HOME/.kube/config" \
  PROVIDERS="azure" \
  TEST_ID="some-test-id" \
  STEPS="setup,deploy,test,undeploy,cleanup" \

GCP Env Variables

  • GCP_SERVICEACCOUNT_JSON_PATH: Path to the service account json file used for this test.
  • GCP_PROJECT_ID: ID of the GCP project.


make \
  GCP_SERVICEACCOUNT_JSON_PATH="/var/lib/secrets/serviceaccount.json" \
  GCP_PROJECT_ID="xyz-project" \
  KUBECONFIG="$HOME/.kube/config" \
  PROVIDERS="gcp" \
  TEST_ID="some-test-id" \
  STEPS="setup,deploy,test,undeploy,cleanup" \

Local Env Variables

No special environment variables are required for running e2e tests with Local provider.


make \
  KUBECONFIG="$HOME/.kube/config" \
  PROVIDERS="local" \
  TEST_ID="some-test-id" \
  STEPS="setup,deploy,test,undeploy,cleanup" \

e2e test with localstack

The above-mentioned e2e tests need storage from real cloud providers to be setup. But there is a tool named localstack that enables to run e2e test with mock AWS storage. We can also provision KIND cluster for e2e tests. So, together with localstack and KIND cluster, we don’t need to depend on any actual cloud provider infrastructure to be setup to run e2e tests.

How are the KIND cluster and localstack set up

KIND or Kubernetes-In-Docker is a kubernetes cluster that is set up inside a docker container. This cluster is with limited capability as it does not have much compute power. But this cluster can easily be setup inside a container and can be tear down easily just by removing a container. That’s why KIND cluster is very easy to use for e2e tests. Makefile command helps to spin up a KIND cluster and use the cluster to run e2e tests.

There is a docker image for localstack. The image is deployed as pod inside the KIND cluster through hack/e2e-test/infrastructure/localstack/localstack.yaml. Makefile takes care of deploying the yaml file in a KIND cluster.

The developer needs to run make ci-e2e-kind command. This command in turn runs hack/ci-e2e-kind.sh which spin up the KIND cluster and deploy localstack in it and then run the e2e tests using localstack as mock AWS storage provider. e2e tests are actually run on host machine but deploy the druid controller inside KIND cluster. Druid controller spawns multinode etcd clusters inside KIND cluster. e2e tests verify whether the druid controller performs its jobs correctly or not. Mock localstack storage is cleaned up after every e2e tests. That’s why the e2e tests need to access the localstack pod running inside KIND cluster. The network traffic between host machine and localstack pod is resolved via mapping localstack pod port to host port while setting up the KIND cluster via hack/e2e-test/infrastructure/kind/cluster.yaml

How to execute e2e tests with localstack and KIND cluster

Run the following make command to spin up a KinD cluster, deploy localstack and run the e2e tests with provider aws:

make ci-e2e-kind